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Prince Edward Island P. To the south Prince Edward Island west, the Northumberland Strait separates the island from the mainland provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. In Prince Edward Island became the seventh province of Canada. In the 8-mile- Area 2, square miles 5, square km. Numerous streams, bays, and tidal estuaries indent the irregular coastline. On the north side the bays are generally blocked by dunes, but on the east and south there are good natural harbours.
Along the 1, miles 1, km of shoreline, red sandstone cliffs average about 20 feet 6 metres in height but occasionally exceed 50 feet 15 metres. Most of the island is within 5 miles 8 km of the sea or a tidal inlet, and no spot is more than 10 miles 16 km from salt water. Water pollution has not been extensive mainly because of the paucity of heavy industry and of mass manufacturingbut effluents from food- and fish-processing plants, manure, pesticide, and fertilizer runoff, and soil erosion from intensive potato cultivation, as well as oil leakage and sedimentation, have collectively seriously degraded some water resources.
Evidence of this can Prince Edward Island found in the episodes of massive fish kills in rivers and estuaries that have been reported at least since and documented since The landscape ranges from rolling hills in central Queens county to level stretches in western Prince county. The highest elevation is feet metres above sea level in Queens county. The soils, classed as podzols, rest on a sandstone base and are low in plant nutrients and high in acidity.
On more than half the island, the red sandy loam is suitable for cultivation. The climate of the province receives a ificant impact from the surrounding ocean, with warmth drawn from the waters in the fall and early winter but then cool air for most of spring and summer. Such mean temperatures, however, conceal some the most variable day-to-day weather experienced in the country. Measurable snowfalls are common over the long winter season from November to April.
Prior to European settlement, the mixed forest consisted mainly of beech, maple, pine, hemlock, oak, and spruce, varying according to topographyelevation, and soil drainage.
Fragmented successional forest now covers about half the island. Foreign species now include linden, horse chestnutblack walnutand European mountain ash. Tall trees line town streets as well as country lanes. Also prior to European settlement, moose roamed the island, as did black bears up to the early 20th century. Wildcats were exterminated, but foxes and snowshoe hares endured, and the nearly depleted beaver has been reintroduced.
Mink, weasels, and muskrats are numerous. The striped skunk and the coyote are unwelcome invaders the first coyote known to have been snared on the island was caught in The ruffed grouse is a native bird, but ring-necked pheasants and Hungarian partridges are imports. Canada geese and brant are regular migrants. Cormorants are increasing, while black ducks are diminishing. Island rivers support such fish as trout, perch, and salmon. There is an active wildlife-conservation program. Prince Edward Island.
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The University of Prince Edward Island