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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks.
Among white adults, obesity was Fat woman Jackson Mississippi associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Obesity is often considered to be result of energy imbalance, which is defined as the balance between energy intake, energy expended through metabolism and physical activity and energy storage. Therefore, changes in body weight are expected when energy intake is not equal to energy expenditure over a certain period of time [ 1 ]. In the United States, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly during the past years.
Nationwide today, more than one-third of adults are obese [ 3 ]. Mississippi currently has the second highest adult obesity rate in the nation It is well established that obesity has negative effects on our overall health, health care system and economy. Obesity is associated with a of chronic diseases, including type II diabetes, hypertension, stroke, coronary heart disease, cancer and cancer-related mortality. Eliminating health disparities, as a top public health priority in the United States, could be a solution for reducing obesity.
One fundamental goal in the Healthy People is to achieve health equity and eliminate disparities. There is substantial research documenting the existence of sociodemographic and economic disparities in obesity; fewer studies have Fat woman Jackson Mississippi the disparities among different race groups.
In addition, many studies have been done to identify socio-demographic overweight and obesity determinants at the national level, while little is known about the socio-demographic risk factors of overweight and obesity in Mississippi. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Understanding the influence of these disparities will be critical to developing public policies and effective clinical interventions to prevent and treat obesity.
Data from each state are weighted to compensate for unequal probabilities of selection, adjust for non-response and non-coverage to match the sample to the population and to make representative population - based estimates. BRFSS questions are deed to gather information from adults on their health condition and health-related behaviors. The questionnaire has three parts: 1 the core component, 2 optional modules and 3 state-added questions.
The CDC requires states to ask all questions on the core questionnaire of each respondent. Optional modules are sets of questions on specific topics that states may choose to use on their questionnaires. Individual states may develop their own questions and add these questions to their questionnaires.
These state-added questions are not edited or evaluated by the CDC. Each year, the states and the CDC agree on the content of the core component and optional modules. The outcome measure was obesity. Explanatory variables were socio-demographics such as gender, age, marital and employment status, race, income and education level.
Healthy behavior in this study was leisure-time physical activity. We used two leisure-time physical activity physically active or physically inactive. Adults who reported any physical activities or exercises, other than their regular job, such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening, or walking for exercise during the past month was categorized as physically active. Taking into consideration that Because a relatively large proportion Simple logistic regression was used to examine unadjusted bivariate association of obesity, sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity.
Multiple logistic regression was conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios for associations between the likelihood of obesity and socio-demographic and physical activity. Correlations between all independent variables were examined prior to inclusion in the models, in order to avoid problems associated with multi-collinearity. The sample weight variable was applied to all analyses to provide valid estimates for the civilian non-institutionalized adult population. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.
Blacks, compared to white adults, were mostly females, unmarried, 25—44 years, obese and they had less education and income as well as higher unemployment rate and physical inactivity. Characteristics of total population, black and white adults, adjusted for sampling de: BRFSS, Our findings Table 2 indicated there was a ificant difference in rates of obesity by age, employment status, and physical activities in both races.
The prevalence of obesity was ificantly higher among adults aged 25—44 years, those who were unemployed and physically inactive. However, there were racial disparities in the prevalence of obesity by gender and education. Black females had higher rate of obesity compared to black males, while, there was no ificant difference in rate of obesity by gender in whites. The prevalence of obesity was ificantly lower in white adults with college degree while the prevalence of obesity was not ificantly different by education levels in black adults.
Prevalence of obesity by characteristics in the total population, blacks and white subgroups, BRFSS Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios ORs for the associations between obesity and social determinants are presented in Table 3. Association between obesity and socio-demographic characteristics in the total population, black and white subgroups, BRFSS Among the black subgroup, gender was the only variable ificantly associated with increased risk of obesity after controlling for the confounders.
Among the white subgroup, obesity was ificantly associated with physical activity, gender, Fat woman Jackson Mississippi and education levels after controlling for confounders. Income and employment status had no association with obesity in both subgroups in the adjusted model. Inmore than one third of adults in Mississippi were obese. The reasons for the high rates of obesity in Mississippi could Fat woman Jackson Mississippi due to differences in the food environment and marketing factors.
Research showed that there is a strong association between advertisement exposure and poor diet. Exposure to marketing of calorie-dense foods can be a serious risk factor for obesity because it has been shown that ethnic minorities are highly responsive to this targeted marketing [ 131415 ].
In addition to advertisement exposure, availability and affordability have been shown to be a key determinant of food choices and consumption [ 16 ]. Healthy foods increasingly cost more and fast food restaurants have become increasingly available and cheaper, possibly increasing the likelihood of obesity in Mississippi. Mississippi has the lowest annual household income in the nation, and low-income individuals may access junk food more easily than other nutrients, beverages and food because of differences in availability or prices. Furthermore, increased portion sizes and fast food consumption are typical dietary behaviors of people in Mississippi, which may increase the likelihood of obesity.
An additional key finding of this study is a considerable racial disparity in rates of obesity in Mississippi. Obesity continues to be higher among blacks, especially among black women [ 1718 ]. Black adults reported higher rates of obesity than white adults at all levels of explanatory variables. Food and beverage marketing targets black Americans more frequently relative to whites, which may result in their higher levels of consumption of high-calorie foods and beverages and consequently, obesity. These industries have been using a variety of marketing tools to target black consumers through advertising, sales promotions, scholarship programs, and sponsorship of events within black communities, and the provision of employment opportunities.
In addition, food consumption and dietary habits are deeply rooted in African American culture and history. Black families especially in southern states have their own traditional foods, often called soul foods, which are prepared with certain types of seasonings and ingredients.
Despite containing healthy nutrients such as vegetables and grains, soul foods include high contents of fat, sugar and unhealthy amounts of salt that contribute to weight gain and obesity. Soul foods have a strong social component and are mainly served at family gatherings and holidays. Our findings also showed that after controlling for confounders, gender, age, education, and physical activity were associated with increased risk of obesity among whites, while gender was the only variable ificantly associated with increased risk of obesity among the black subgroup.
One explanation could be that higher levels of social economic status do not translate into the same level of social opportunities and resources for blacks as for whites; as a result, middle-class blacks are more likely to live in disadvantaged neighborhoods than whites with similar socioeconomic status.
Prior research indicated that black neighborhoods are more likely to have fast food restaurants and less likely to have fresh markets, parks, sidewalks and recreational resources [ 27 ]. Recent research suggests these community-level characteristics are associated with obesity independent of individual characteristics [ 28 ].
Our findings indicated that black women were twice as likely to be obese compared to black males, while white females were less likely to be obese compared to white males. Evidence has shown that obesity in women, especially those who are underrepresented such as black women, is associated with body image and weight perception.
Prior research showed that black women are more prone to underestimate their weight due to different norms about body size and shape in their community compared to white women. Near half of overweight and obese black women do not classify their body size as overweight or obese.
Black women are also more satisfied with their body size than whites, and see themselves more attractive than white women despite higher body mass. They also have fewer negative attitudes about qualities of overweight people than white women. Moreover, higher prevalence of obesity in black women might be associated with certain social factors including racial and residential discrimination.
There is strong evidence that women who report more experiences of racial discrimination were more likely to be overweight or obese black women may choose food to cope with the disadvantage or negative feelings associated with residential discrimination and segregation [ 31 ].
There is also evidence that eating may reduce feelings of anxiety or stress [ 3233 ].
Efforts are needed to identify and maximize resources that may reduce the negative effects of psychosocial factors on overall health and prevent obesity. The strength of this study is that the analyses were based on a large, nationally-representative sample of United States adults. are thus generalizable on a population level and can be compared to other recent studies [ 34 ].
However, the findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, estimates of obesity and explanatory variables were based on self-reporting, and respondents might not have accurately reported their height and weight; therefore, estimates might be either underestimated or overestimated.
Second, these analyses were limited to adults in Mississippi, which limits the generalizability of the findings to the entire U. This study improves our understanding of adult obesity by focusing on variations by sociodemographic characteristics. Additional research is needed to understand the underlying risk factors of obesity among subgroups with higher prevalence. Our findings indicated a high prevalence of obesity in Mississippi, which is consistent with national findings.
The likelihood of obesity was greater among blacks, adults aged 25—44, and those with no physical activities, regardless of race. ing for race, gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Our findings showed that black females are more likely to be obese after controlling for the confounders. Fat woman Jackson Mississippi white adults, obesity was ificantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels after controlling for confounders. Those aged 25—44 years, those with less physical activity or less education were more likely to be obese, and females and those aged 18—24 years were less likely to be obese.
Eliminating disparities may reduce overweight and obesity and consequently, the risk of chronic diseases among U.Fat woman Jackson Mississippi
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